Jesus Christ, in His early ministry, preached that the Kingdom of God was nigh at hand.
PROPOSITION 42. Jesus Christ, in His early ministry, preached that the Kingdom of God was nigh at hand.
When John’s ministry ended by his imprisonment, it is said (Matt. 4:17): “From that time Jesus began to preach, and to say, Repent, for the Kingdom of heaven is at hand.” (Comp. Mark 1:14, 15, Luke 4:23, and 8:1.)[*]
Note. The design of this Proposition is simply to direct the attention of the reader to the fact that Jesus preached the Kingdom of God in the same manner that John the Baptist did, for there would be an inconsistency in the Forerunner preaching one Kingdom and the Principal quite another. Therefore, the meaning and intent of the nighness—also proclaimed by John, Jesus, the twelve, and the seventy—will be left for full consideration under Propositions 55 to 68 inclusive, when we shall be better prepared, by the preliminaries passed over, to appreciate its deep and intensely interesting signification.
Obs. 1. Jesus adopts the same style that John did, urges the same condition of repentance, uses the phraseology common with the Jews, and introduces the subject of the Kingdom, without any explanation, as one well known and understood. The efforts made by well-intentioned men to give this preaching of Jesus a “modern” aspect and coloring is not only a failure, being opposed by stubborn facts and the immediate results in His hearers, but it actually places the Messiah in a position irreconcilable with that of a perfect Divine Teacher. We therefore hold, with the Primitive Church, until decided scriptural proof is offered to the contrary, that Jesus offered to the Jews the Theocratic-Davidic Kingdom in its Civil and Religious combination, just as predicted by the prophets.
Obs. 2. How Jesus was understood by His hearers, we leave one of our opponents—to whose interest it would be to conceal or cover it—to describe. Thus Knapp (Ch. Theol., p. 323): “At the time of Christ, and previously, the current opinion of the people in Palestine, and indeed of most of the Pharisees and lawyers, was, that He (the Messiah) would be a temporal Deliverer and a King of the Jews, and, indeed, a universal Monarch, who would reign over all nations. Thus they interpreted the passages, Ps. 2:2, 6, 8, Jer. 23:5, 6, Zech. 9:4, seq. Hence those who, during the life-time of Jesus, acknowledged Him to be the Messiah, wished to proclaim Him King, John 6:15, coll.; Matt. 21:8, 9. The apostles themselves held this opinion until after the resurrection of Christ, Matt. 20:20, 21, Luke 24:21, Acts 1:6. And Jesus Himself, during His life upon earth, Proceeded very guardedly, in order to lead them gradually from this deep-rooted prejudice, and not to take it away at once.” Who can justly be regarded as the author of this “deep-rooted prejudice”? Certainly He who placed it in the plain grammatical sense of the Old Test., who left the Jewish nation with it for many long centuries as their faith and their hope, and who, while having twelve men in training to be preachers of this Kingdom for over three years, did not remove it, as Knapp confesses. The question is, Was it a “prejudice” or the truth?[*]
Note. Knapp himself falls into the accommodation theory, which (Sec. 90, 2) he justly condemns, and thus violates the very principle of interpretation (literal) adopted by Christ and the apostles in quoting from the Old Test., and which (S. 90, 3) he approves; illustrating, that it is much more easy to lay down canons for interpretation than to follow them. We have merely the assertion of Knapp and others, that the hope of a Theocratic restoration—which they frankly acknowledge (not seeing how necessarily fatal it is to their own theory) was not removed by the public preaching and private instructions of Jesus—is a “deep-rooted prejudice.” It seems passing strange that without positive proof, eminent theologians, following the lead of the Alexandrian and monkish opinion afterward developed, should hastily, rashly rush to such a conclusion—a conclusion that violates covenant, oath, plain promises, the purity of John’s and Christ’s teaching. True, such lack of faith is predicted, but still it is strange that it should be found even in men who, in many other respects, are able defenders of God’s Word. Alas! that there should be an unwillingness to candidly examine whether, after all, such a “prejudice” is not clearly taught in the Old Test., and as distinctively perpetuated under the preaching of the Messiah Himself, and whether there may not be valid reasons, found in the conduct of the nation itself, why this “prejudice” remained unrealized. When Fuller (Strictures on Robinson’s Sentiments, Let. 2) says of the disciples, “Their foolish minds were so dazzled with the false ideas of a temporal Kingdom that they were blinded to the true end of Christ’s coming and to all that the prophets declared concerning it,” we, on the other hand, think that it is Fuller’s mind that is “so dazzled with the false ideas of a” spiritual “kingdom” that it is “blinded,” etc.
Obs. 3. Pressense has (in The Redeemer) a chapter entitled “The Plan of Jesus Christ,” which contains an inconsistent and misleading Plan, telling us, e.g. that it was part of the plan of Jesus to abolish the Theocracy (just as if it then existed, comp. Props. 32, 33), because a Theocracy is useless (!?), etc., and the proof alleged for such fundamentally sweeping assertions is the phrase “my Kingdom is not of this world” (just as if the Theocracy was not a Divine but a world appointment, comp. Prop. 25, Obs. 6). As we shall examine this proof (comp. Props. 109 and 110) in another connection, it is sufficient to ask now, Why were the preachers of the Kingdom down to the ascension (Acts 1:6) entirely unacquainted with Pressense’s plan? Why does Jesus then express regret at leaving “the house (Davidic) desolate,” and point to His future coming, when the desolation should be removed? Why does the entire tenor of His preaching evince that He never, for a moment, hesitated in identifying His Kingdom that He proclaimed with that of the Prophets, understood by the Jews in the Theocratic sense, as e.g. Matt. 16:27 and 25:34, comp with Dan. 7:18, 27; Luke 13:28, 29, Matt. 8:11, comp. with Mic. 7:20; Luke 22:29, 30, Matt. 19:28, comp. with Mic. 4:6–8, Ezek. 37:21, 22, etc.? When such talented writers misapprehend the precious nature of the Theocratic-Davidic Kingdom, and disparage its Divine appointment, what idea can the multitude form of the same?
Obs. 4. Dr. Auberlen (Div. Rev.) has boldly and truthfully declared that Jesus, the Prophets, and the apostles were express Chiliasts. They all, receiving the grammatical sense and expressing themselves in it, taught and looked for a restoration of the fallen down Davidic Kingdom under the Messiah. (The proof on this point is cumulative and irresistible, as will be shown in the course of our argument—the design at present being merely to introduce some preparatory matter before considering the covenants upon which all rests.) Hence Renan (Life of Christ) frequently refers (so Strauss, Baur, etc.) to this Chiliastic feature, saying, e.g. (p. 140) that “Millenarianism gave the impulsion.”[*]
Note. Renan, too, like many of the orthodox, overlooking the postponement of the Kingdom so plainly taught, ignoring the existence of the Scriptures that refer to it, and consequently not realizing the close relationship existing between the rejection of Jesus by the representative men of the Jewish nation and His corresponding change in addressing the Jews, makes sad work with the Kingdom preached. He makes it just as varied as the belief does which he is attacking, telling us that Jesus understood it “in different senses.” At one time it is “simply the reign of the poor and disinterested;” at another it is “the literal accomplishment of the apocalyptic visions of Daniel and Enoch;” sometimes it is “the Kingdom of souls,” etc. After saying, “the fundamental idea of Jesus was, from the first day, the establishment of the Kingdom of God,” we have from Renan’s pen about as many definitions of “the Kingdom of God” as, on the other side, Barnes gives (Prop. 3) in his Notes. This is derogatory to Christ, and will be found, by a candid comparison of Scripture, to be utterly unfounded.
Obs. 5. Because the Kingdom (Theocratic) has not yet appeared as preached, we are not authorized to conclude (as Renan, etc.) that Christ changed His plan; because the Jews rejected Him, we are not at liberty to infer that their Davidic house will remain forever desolate. In this matter we must confine ourselves (Prop. 9) to the Record, and see why the Kingdom did not come, what influence this rejection had upon the Kingdom, and what Jesus Himself declared concerning it, and then, only then, frame our conclusions accordingly. The simple, unvarnished narrative, as firmly held by the Primitive churches, tells us that the Kingdom preached as nigh was postponed to the Sec. Advent.[*]
Note. But this excites the scorn of Unbelievers, who, in virtue of this allusion to his Sec. Advent, charge Jesus with preaching “dreams.” Those extravagant upholders of Christ as a preacher of “the Religion of Humanity” still make (as Renan) Him proclaim (Life of Jesus, p. 248) “the expectation of an empty apocalypse,” “a false, cold, impossible idea of a pompons advent,” etc. The case is prejudged; the impossible steps in, and nothing is left to faith. This is precisely in the line of Bible prediction, that such “scoffers” shall be educated to such a standard of unbelief and irreverence for Christ’s preaching and Christ’s claims to the one Kingdom linked with, and postponed to, his Sec. Appearing (2 Tim. 4:1, etc.), and that they shall, by the spread of their unbelieving sentiments, influence the multitude, so that at the Second Advent, kings, nobles, great and mighty men, a vast concourse of people shall be arrayed against Him (Apoc. 19, Zech. 14, Joel 3, etc.). But it is not merely the infidel who speaks disparagingly of Christ’s preaching; many a believer, who loves Christ and would shrink from being classed with unbelievers, so far coincides with infidelity in the fundamental part of preaching the Kingdom, that he lamely apologizes in behalf of Christ (when He needs none), and endeavors to conceal the alleged defects under a weak accommodation theory, saying that Christ accommodated Himself to the ignorance and prejudices of the Jews. A system that must resort to such an abject line of reasoning, making Jesus to say one thing while really meaning another, keeping others (as e.g. apostles down to the ascension, Acts 1:6) in “error and prejudice,” while all the time intending the reverse, is certainly—no matter who advocates it—sorely defective and entirely untrustworthy. It lacks the truth, or it would not place the blessed Messiah in such an unenviable attitude. How much more logical and consistent the Primitive Church.
Obs. 6. Neander and others misapprehend the intent of the Sermon on the Mount, when they make it designed to contradict the Messianic expectations of the Jews in a restored Davidic throne and Kingdom. For (1) it contains not a word or thought against such a hope; (2) it confirms the Jews in such expectations by using their phraseology without intimating the least change of meaning; (3) those very persons admit that it did not change the opinions of the disciples and apostles; (4) they mistake the preparatives of the Kingdom for the Kingdom itself; (5) the exact reverse is the truth, as seen in the allusions concerning the promise of inheriting the earth, of securing the Kingdom, of fulfilling the prophets, of Jerusalem being “the city of the great King,” of praying for the Kingdom to come, etc., all of which had the decided tendency—as shown by the result—of confirming the hearers in Jewish expectations. The foundation thought of the Kingdom is the keynote to its interpretation, and if this is misconceived the entire discourse suffers.
Obs. 7. Jesus preached “the gospel of the Kingdom” (Matt. 4:23 and 9:35, etc.), and for this, He tells us, He was sent (Luke 4:43). Therefore we cannot receive as well grounded a principle enunciated by Hagenbach (His. of Doc., vol. 1, p. 45), that “The office of the Saviour was not to propound doctrines, or to set forth doctrinal formulas, but to manifest Himself, and to reveal His unity with the Father. His person was a fact, and not an idea,” etc. Cheerfully admitting that Jesus was thus to manifest Himself as an essential part of His mission, He at the same time was commissioned to propound doctrine, and, above all, the doctrine of the Kingdom. Without such doctrine it would have been impossible to exhibit Himself as the Messiah, for doctrine and the Messiahship are inseparably connected.[*]
Note. It is painful to notice how many works, which ought to contain it, omit this distinctive preaching, as e.g. Luther’s Smaller Catechism (Pub. for Gen. Synod, 1840) asks (p. 54) the question, “What were the chief subjects of Christ’s preaching to the people?” and answers by giving six things, but fails to mention the principal subject of all, the preaching of the Kingdom. The reader can readily find hundreds of similar illustrations.
Obs. 8. Even some who fully admit the re-establishment of the Theocratic-Davidic throne and Kingdom in the future under the Messiah, have Christ to preach, for the time being, another, viz.: a spiritual Kingdom. Thus e.g. J. L. Lord (Israel’s Judicial Blindness) informs us, “That Christ first offered to the Jewish nation, not the Davidic and temporal Kingdom which they had expected, but His spiritual Kingdom only, upon conditions which were as repugnant to their ceremonial self-righteousness as it was to their infatuated worldly hopes and expectations.” Strange that men cannot, at once, see the illogical and inconsistent position in which this places Jesus. As our argument will meet this view in detail under various following Propositions, it will only be necessary to say, Why does Jesus then employ the Jewish phraseology, and confirm the Jews and even His own disciples in their Jewish expectations? Why are the Jews condemned for not seeing and acknowledging a Kingdom, which is not, in any shape or form, contained in the Davidic Covenant? Why, if such a spiritual Kingdom was “first offered,” did not John the Baptist, the disciples, and the seventy, tender it to the people? Why, if this spiritual Kingdom is the superior and more exalted idea, make the consummation bring forth the realization of Jewish hopes in the final glorious restoration of the Davidic throne and Kingdom? Why, if the spiritual Kingdom is “the professing church,” preach that it was something to come, when the church has always existed? These, and similar questions that must be answered, indicate the untenableness of such a position.[*]
Note. Leathes (The Relig. of the Christ, Bampton Lec. for 1874) spiritualizes the title Christ (comp. Prop. 205), and, therefore, also the Kingdom (thus vitiating much that is most admirable in his work), and (p. 192) says: “John had not ventured to define what he meant by the kingdom of heaven” (simply because it needed no definition, Props. 19–22); “but no sooner does Jesus open His mouth than He says, ‘Blessed are the poor in spirit, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven.’ ” And this, he claims, is a defining of the Kingdom different from what was previously understood, i.e. it spiritualizes and renders invisible what before was deemed temporal and visible here on the earth. But ponder the language of Jesus, and you will find no definition of the Kingdom in it, but simply a declaration and encouragement of worthiness—how attained—for the Kingdom. It only tells us who are fit for it, and who will ultimately receive it. The disciples, who were of these “poor in spirit,” had not the faintest idea (Acts 1:6) that such a definition was intended; and we certainly deem them, in view of special instruction and privileges, better qualified to know this than moderns are who interpret all Scripture by a Church-Kingdom theory.
Obs. 9. The indulgence of the reader is desired while, in this connection, a few points are forestalled. Three things must evidently have weighed upon the mind of Jesus, and thus shaped His style of preaching the Kingdom.
1. The fact of the existence of the Roman Government over the Jewish nation, and its jealousy of power. His mission was to the Jews, and He was commissioned to tender the Kingdom to the nation (e.g. Props. 55, 57, etc.), and the Kingdom, according to the Davidic covenant required a Son of David to restore the throne and Kingdom of David. This was taught by the Prophets, and believed by the Jews. It was the general, universal belief that when the Messiah came to establish the Kingdom, He would overthrow Gentile domination (as He will do at the Sec. Advent, Props. 163 and 164), and thus deliver the Jewish nation from its enemies. In addressing the Jews, it was unnecessary to proclaim this Kingdom boldly and freely in the emphatic words of the Prophets, because (1) the Kingdom denoted was already well known, as the subject-matter of covenant and promise, to every Jew; and (2) because, foreseeing His rejection by the Jews, advantage would inevitably be taken (comp. Prop. 40, Obs. 6, note 1) of it to accuse Him as a conspirator against the Roman Power. With all the wisdom and prudence exercised by Him, this, nevertheless, was done, and He was crucified under the charge of being “the King of the Jews,” thus implying opposition to Cæsar.[*]
2. Knowing, as Jesus did, that the offer of the Kingdom must be made (Prop. 55, etc.), that the tender would be rejected (Prop. 57, etc.), and that the Kingdom itself would be postponed (Props. 58–68), it would, in view of these foreknown circumstances, have been unwise and impolitic to have presented the subject of the Kingdom in any other way than that in which it was done. Sufficiently clear to test the repentance and faith of the nation, sufficiently distinct for those who receive the Word of God without human additions, and sufficiently precise to encourage the hope of His people in His Messiahship—more would have been inexpedient. What was needed in addition He gave to us through John (in Apoc.), and this also in a form that it might not unnecessarily excite opposition. Christ’s preaching is influenced by foreknown results.
3. Foreknowing how the Kingdom would eventually, at His Sec. Advent (Props. 66, 74, 83, 87, etc.), be established, He could accordingly shape and adapt His language, introducing other matter that necessarily preceded the same. While a restoration of the Davidic throne and Kingdom (and as a result the restoration of the Jewish nation to eminence and power) is contemplated, yet, because of the defection of the nation and its long continued punishment, purposes of mercy toward the Gentiles were entertained and mentioned, promises to be realized ultimately in the Kingdom were given, encouragements and cautions were presented, etc. This introduced new details, which can only be properly apprehended when taken in their connection with the whole.
Note. This is a sufficient reply to those who ask why the New Test. is not more specific in mentioning the Davidic throne and Kingdom (although in several places pointedly referred to), for all knew the Kingdom intended. This, too, may be a reason why Jesus wrote nothing, lest His writings should be employed, as His reported words were, against Him. The peculiar surroundings required, in the nature of the case, great caution in proclaiming the Kingdom; and hence language was adopted toward the Jewish nation sufficiently precise and determinate for it, having the prophets to understand. And this prudence was continued by the apostles afterward (as e.g. in linking the Kingdom with the Second Advent, with Supernatural power, etc.), to prevent the Romans from taking unnecessary alarm and persecuting believers. For history informs us how readily the Roman emperors could thus be aroused. Eusebius (Eccl. His., B. 3, ch. 19, 20; comp. Gibbon’s Rome, ch. 16, vol. 2, p. 21) states that the descendants of David were ordered to be slain, and the alleged relatives of the Lord were apprehended and brought before Domitian, who was alarmed or suspicious, but as they professed not to believe in a present temporal kingdom, but in a divine one to come at “the end of the world,” i.e. at the Sec. Advent, they were dismissed. (In this account, several things are noticeable, making allowance for additions: (1) Why should Domitian desire the death of the relatives of Jesus or fear Christ (as we are told), if it was not for the Primitive belief that Christ would come and re-establish the Davidic throne and kingdom? (2) that the only Kingdom these relatives were conscious of was not the church as one, but the Kingdom at the end of the age, raised up by the coming Son of David; (3) that, truthfully they; made it Divine, not such a temporal kingdom as the Roman, but one established by Supernatural power and under its control. Eusebius may have colored it a little, but as it does not favor his Church-Kingdom theory, and has much of the Primitive cast in it, we may in the main receive it.) The Primitive Church writers (as we shall show hereafter) constantly appealed to the prophecies of a restored Davidic throne and Kingdom, and expressed their faith in the same, but as they carefully showed that this was to be affected by Jesus, who had been crucified and buried, it seemed to be foolishness in the sight of worldly rulers—something that should cause them no uneasiness, especially as all believers disclaimed the least idea of raising up such a Kingdom, but waited for Christ’s appearing. How advantage was taken of this very belief in a few cases, history also records. Another feature, too, which is not generally noticed, crops out in this direction, viz.: that this very belief is a cause of the brevity of ancient remarks on the subject. The Jews were not desirous to give it great prominence and publicity, because it would naturally excite the suspicions of the emperors. The believers, for the same reason, are guarded. The Gentiles, opponents to both, were not inclined to publish and dilate upon it, because, by so doing, they might be called on by the government to substantiate the charge, and in view of its being based as it was, expose themselves to harm. Intimations, indeed, exist, which show that sneers and ridicule were cast upon the idea of a crucified Son of David coming back to establish a Kingdom. Boyle, Whately, Rogers, and others have noticed the peculiarity of the Bible in presenting an unsystematic distribution of its contents, thus calling for comparison, study, etc. In the reasons assigned for this, they altogether overlook the fact that if a strictly logical arrangement had been made, so distinctively would this idea of the Kingdom have become that the Roman Power and other nations would have been extremely hostile to it.
Another feature may be briefly adverted to: the meanest part taken by the representative men of the Jewish nation in the condemnation of Jesus was the taking advantage of Jesus having proclaimed Himself the Messiah, i.e. the Jewish King, and basing upon it the charge of conspiring against Cæsar. The meanness consists in this: that their own views of the prophecies, if they were fulfilled as written, demanded of the Messiah to oppose the then existing Gentile power in order to restore the Kingdom, so that to compass the death of Jesus they override their own deliberate convictions of the Messianic display of power, and stamp their conduct as outrageously hypocritical. On the other hand, our faith and hope is confirmed in the Kingdom preached by Jesus, in the assumption of Messianic Royalty, which, not discarding, was the ground of His execution. Faith and hope rejoices over the inscription: “Jesus, the King of the Jews.” If there was nothing substantial in this Royalty, the very Royalty to which He was entitled as David’s Son and Lord, why retain it down to the very last, and leave it still speaking, silently but impressively, over His dead body on the cross?
Obs. 10. This preaching of the Kingdom by Jesus was, then, an appeal to faith; it is the same to-day. It then called for an acquaintance with the covenants and prophets; it demands the same at present. But in the preaching of Jesus and of His apostles some things pertaining to the Kingdom are brought out more distinctively and with stronger appeals to faith. The necessity of moral purity is impressed; the superiority of the coming Kingdom over all earthly Kingdoms is declared; its restoration, not by human but divine power, is carefully asserted; its postponement to the Sec. Advent is taught; its exaltation and extension, its power and blessings are portrayed; the wonderful things related to it, such as the resurrection of the saints, Kingship and priesthood, glorification, renewal of the earth and Theocratic glory, are presented—and all this, a reiteration and extension of Old Test. predictions, calls for continued faith. The whole matter is purposely so arranged and ordered that faith alone—sustained by the fulfilments and a comparison of the Record—can discern the surpassingly strange but pre-eminently wise Purpose of God.[*]
Note. Another reason why Jesus Himself did not write (as the founders of other religious systems) is found in the preaching of this Kingdom. The subject-matter of His preaching is found in the Old Test., its foundation is in the covenant, and His mission is not to found a new Kingdom, but to offer that which is already proposed, and of which He is the rightful Heir. He is not come to write, but to fulfil that which is written; hence a systematic arrangement of Divinity, a Theological system or summary of Doctrine, would have been out of place. While He necessarily taught doctrine as pertaining to Himself and the Kingdom, His specific mission has its dignity enhanced by the position that He occupied. It is true that, after the postponement was fully decided by His death, etc., then special provision had to be made for this period, but this we find in the instructions afterward imparted through the apostles in the establishment of the Christian Church. Christ honors the prophetic record, honors the oath-confirmed covenant, and, by the fulfilment of His own birth, life, death, resurrection, ascension, words respecting the Jewish nation, Gentiles, Church etc., reconfirms in the most powerful manner—infinitely superior to mere writing—the testimony concerning Himself and the Kingdom.
Obs. 11. The fundamental idea, forming a bond of union between Jesus and the preceding Revealers of the Purpose of God, is the Kingdom of heaven. This He preached first; this He revealed last through John the Revelator; this was the special subject (Acts 1:3) between Him and the apostles after His resurrection; and hence by it He places Himself in contact with the Prophets, in unison with John the Baptist, in sympathy with His disciples, and stamps Himself as the great Preacher of the Kingdom. This suggests that perfect unity of Teaching must exist between all these; that no accommodation theory can interpose between His teaching and that of John’s or the Prophets; and that the subject of the Kingdom, being so prominently set forth, must be (Props. 1 and 2) a most interesting topic to every intelligent believer and student.
Obs. 12. What Kingdom Jesus preached can readily be ascertained by noticing what Kingdom His disciples preached. For, as an honest Teacher, He would not, He could not, send out men to preach a Kingdom different from the one proclaimed by Himself.
Obs. 13. Men profess to be amazed that the Jews and disciples should be so ignorant as to expect in the Messiah “a temporal deliverer,” and regard those who retain this Jewish idea as “fanatical,” “unspiritual,” etc. But how, if we receive God’s express promises, the plain grammatical sense, can we believe otherwise? Temporal deliverance, in addition to great spiritual blessings, are linked together (e.g. Zech. 14) in numerous prophecies, and it would indicate lack of faith in God’s honor and faithfulness to reject or ignore the same. We know that by the spiritualizing process Zechariah’s declarations (Luke 1:71, 74), “saved from our enemies, and from the hand of all that hate us,” “delivered out of the hand of our enemies,” are made to denote exclusively spiritual enemies.* But this is not sustained by the predictions of the Word, seeing (as will be consecutively shown hereafter, e.g. Props. 111–115) that temporal deliverance is assigned to the restoration of the Jewish nation, and is to be in a special manner the work of the Messiah at His Second Coming. The prophets all uniformly predict the temporal depressed condition of the nation, and in the same connection a glorious temporal deliverance. Leaving the proof to come in its proper place, it is sufficient now to say that if the Theocracy is to be restored at all as covenanted and predicted, such a restoration must necessarily include temporal deliverance (how else can the throne and Kingdom be re-established), and hence the Messiah, in addition to other perfections, is also a temporal Deliverer. The sinfulness of the nation, the postponement of the Kingdom, etc., only throws the time of its manifestation to the period of the Second Advent.